Laragh's Lessons in Renin System Pathophysiology for

Format: Hardcover

Language: English

Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub

Size: 13.74 MB

Downloadable formats: PDF

People with type 2 diabetes also have high rates of high blood pressure, lipid problems, and obesity, which contribute to their high rates of CVD. In this sub topic Heart disease we have different types of heart diseases i.e. Orthostatic hypotension is most likely to occur following the use of: 21. The result is increased cardiac output, increased renal blood flow, increased perfusion and increased urine formation.

Pages: 192

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann (June 1, 2002)

ISBN: 0080441343

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The full archive of BMC Clinical Pharmacology is available here. what do anticoagulants do prevent the clot from getting larger and travelling elsewhere in the body antidote for dig toxicity digoxin immune fab first sign of dig toxicity in a child arrhythmias cardiac glycosides are considered positive inotropic because they increase cardiac contractilitiy negative inotropic means decrease in contractility expected outcome for a heart failure pt who is on diuretic want to see a decrease in preload and afterload test that measures how long it takes for a persons blood to clot prothrombin time pt test is used to measure effectiveness of anticoagulant therapies activase, retevase are exogenous thrombolytics which means they resemble tpa, tissue plasminogen activator... patient receiving digitalis should be monitored for dig toxicity when taking what furosemide furosemide can potentiate dig toxicity because it is a k depleting diuretic... k wasting diuretics in the elderly can cause postural hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, and hyperglycemia essential hypertension is what hypertension with no cause, cause is unknown diuretics are used to treat HTN, heart failure, and kidney disorders calcium channel blockers mechanism of action are it slows the conduction velocity through the heart leading to more efficient pumping action by blocking calcium from entering the cell, reduces PVR by vasodilation thus decreasing b/p, and dilates coronaries which increase oxygen delivery renin angiotensin modifiers include vasodilate, blocks fluid reabsorption, blocks sodium reabsorption, some block angiotensin receptors and some blcok the creation of angiotensin II adverse affects of ACE inhibitors are postural hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, rapid fall in b/p at 1st dose, can cause dry cough what to tell pts to avoid orthostatic hypotension rise slowly to sitting and standing positions, dangle first alpha and beta adrenergic blockers have what effect negative inotropic- weaken cardiac contractility b2 adrenergic blockers have what effect on a pt with asthma they stimulate the lungs to open the airways, which we now block, so the airway gets smaller, and it aggravates the symptoms of asthma propranolol a beta adrenergic blocker- does what to a pt with HTN it blocks the b receptors that stimulate the cardiac muscle and decrease b/p reasons for using adrenergic blockers HTN, antidysrrhythmics, to decrease sympathetic tone, to prolong survival of heart failure pts, for angina and heart attacks, temporarily for stagefright and as a prophylaxis for migraines side effect of using vasodilators reflex tachycardia long term vasodilation therapy can lead to fluid retention if you dont take care of HTN, it can lead to HF, stroke, angina, MI, and renal failure root cause of Heart failure weakend cardiac musle goal of pharmacotherapy tx for HF the ability to change the force of contractions SA node is the pacemaker and is where electrical impulses are generated in the heart lidocaine first drug of choice for new onset dysrrhythmias lidocaine used for dysrhythmias and as a local anesthetic what is the mechanism of action for k channel blockers ( class III) amiodarone amiodarone prolongs the refractory period and slows the heart rate down what do u tell your patients on k channel blockers tell them to rise slowly to avoid orthostatic hypotension stable angina subsides with rest and is predictable in frequency and duration unstable angina can occur when a patient is resting and not exerting himself, occurs more frequently and severly, requires aggressive medical treatment ways to prevent angina pectoris stop smoking, limit alcohol, limit salty food, medically supervised exercise, stress reduction, control fat intake through healthy diet, keep weight to an optimal level symptoms of angina pectoris sharp pain in the heart region, pain may radiate to the left side of neck and lower jaw and down the left arm and can last 30 sec to 30 min, discomfort may include squeezing, tightness, choking, pressure, burning, and heaviness goals in treating angina pectoris decrease frequency of angina, terminate acute anginal pain in progress, slow conduction velocity through the heart, reduce cardiac oxygen requirements, things to reduce cardiac oxygen requirements reduce cardiac preload, reduce cardiac afterload, increase coronary blood flow things to do if a pt is experiencing dysrhythmias oxygen, morphine, lidocaine, and nitroglycerin cardiogenic shock is where the heart is failing to maintain b/p for delivery of oxygen anaphylactic shock is severe reactions to allergens such as shellfish, nuts, bee sting, and medication neurogenic shock is vasodilation due to overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system septic shock multiple organ dysfunction due to pathogenic organisms in the blood abc's airway, breathing, and circulation when given IV, the drug dopamine will increase b/p immediately

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