By Nigel Arden, Francisco Blanco, C. Cooper, Ali Guermazi, Daichi Hayashi, David Hunter, M. Kassim Javaid, Francois Rannou, Frank Roemer, Jean-Yves Reginster
This Atlas offers an updated and accomplished assessment of the ancient and present views on osteoarthritis, together with the pathophysiology and epidemiology of the sickness. Written by means of prime authors within the box of osteoarthritis, the publication discusses class, etiology and chance components for osteoarthritis, the ailment path and determinants of osteoarthritis development, scientific positive factors and analysis in addition to imaging tips on how to investigate joint harm. The Atlas of Osteoarthritis concludes with the newest therapy updates together with either nonpharmacological and pharmacological remedies, in addition to surgical techniques for sufferers with the affliction. Osteoarthritis is the commonest type of joint sickness inflicting joint soreness, stiffness, and actual incapacity between adults. it truly is a huge factor for either the person and society with its effect on public health and wellbeing carrying on with to develop a result of getting older inhabitants, the emerging occurrence of weight problems, and the shortcoming of definitive remedies to avoid or halt the development of the disease.
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Extra info for Atlas of Osteoarthritis
30 Sharma L, Chmiel JS, Almagor O, et al. The role of varus and valgus alignment in the initial development of knee cartilage damage by MRI: the MOST Study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;epub ahead of print. 31 Arden N, Nevitt MC. Osteoarthritis: epidemiology. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2006;20:3-25. 32 Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, Lopez V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Gualillo O. Adipokines and osteoarthritis: novel molecules involved in the pathogenesis and progression of disease. Arthritis. 1155/2011/203901. 33 Anandacoomarasamy A, Leibman S, Smith G, et al.
ADAMTS, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs; MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases. Reproduced with permission from Leong & Sun . Cytokines (primarily interleukins and tumour necrosis factor-α), proteinases (primarily MMPs), lipid mediators and reactive oxygen species all stimulate chondrocytes to release cartilage-degrading enzymes [6,55]. 13) . Applying nonphysical mechanical stress loads to osteoblasts also increases the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in a stress magnitude-dependent manner, further demonstrating the significance of inflammatory factors in osteophytes.
ADAMTS, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; IL, interleukin; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases; NO, nitric oxide; OC, osteocalcin; TGF, transforming growth factor. Reproduced with permission from Conde et al . 2) [34–53]. 12; see page 48) . Molecular events in articular chondrocytes associated with ageing Phenotype of chondrocyte ageing Molecular events Altered gene expression related to senescence • • • • DNA and telomere dysfunction • ↓ TRF → telomere shortening  • ↓ XRCC5→↑ DNA damage  • Mitochondrial DNA degradation  ↑ GADD45β and C/EBPβ → ↑ p21 transcription  ↓ SIRT1→↑ p53, ↑ p21  ↑ Caveolin 1→↑ p53, ↑ p21  ↑ β-Galactosidase  Altered protein secretion • ↑ Pro-inflammatory cytokines (ie, IL-1β, TNF-α) and pro-inflammatory mediators (PGE2, NO)  • ↑ MMPs (−1, −3, −13) and ADAMTS (−4, −5) [40,41] Oxidative damage • ↑ ROS production [42,43] • ↓ Antioxidant enzyme activity  • Mitochondrial dysfunction  ↓ Growth factor response • Impaired responsiveness to IGF-1 [46,47], OP-1/BMP-7 , TGF-β [49,50] Cell death • ↓ IGF-1 and OP-1 → reduced cellularity  • ↓ CK2→apoptosis  • ↓ HMGB2→apoptosis  A potential model for osteoarthritis is one where it is represented as a chronic wound that triggers an innate immune response .