By Docteur Paul G. J. Maquet (auth.)
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Extra info for Biomechanics of the Knee: With Application to the Pathogenesis and the Surgical Treatment of Osteoarthritis
45. Directional angles. t: tibia. G: knee y o z 48 6 The obliquity of the tibial plateaux on the long axis of the tibia varies with the individuals and is not important (less than 10°). Considering it would only very slightly change the results of calculation. 1. Force R acting at point G in the direction of t. This force can be roughly considered as the force compressing the femur on the tibia. 2. Force F, parallel to R, produced by the tension of muscles inserted in the tibia, acting perpendicular to plane n at point A on a circle with centre G and radius r.
It is inclined at 5° from the vertical. 8 kg. This is a little more than twice the body weight. This force is inclined at about 5° from the vertical. b) Sagittal Plane For a schematic analysis in the sagittal plane we choose a slightly flexed position of the joints of the lower limb (Kummer, 1962). This position provides for a better concept of the interplay of the forces during their action on the loaded joints. Both the centre of gravity of the body and the partial centre of gravity S7 lie on the same vertical line.
O2 : centre of curvature of the lateral condyle. G: central point on the axis of flexion of the knee The magnitude of L is easily found: The construction of the parallelogram of forces shows graphically the magnitude and the direction of the resultant force R. These can also be calculated: R = Vp 2 + L2 + 2 P . L· cos 1/1. Angle 1/1 is the acute angle formed by the lines of action of forces P and L. The direction of resultant R is given by the equation: . (p. R ) = If L SIll . 1/1 SIll (P . R) is the angle formed by the lines of action of force P and resultant R.