Dendrimers II: Architecture, Nanostructure and by Fritz Vögtle

By Fritz Vögtle

The moment quantity on dendrimers is back written through pioneers within the box. Their contributions remove darkness from the facets of dendrimers pointed out within the subtitle, and in addition contact on parts past chemistry, specifically fabric sciences in addition to organic, medicinal, analytical, and nano facets.

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Seebach et al. [291] were the first to differentiate dendrimers based on the position of the chiral centers in the molecule. Later Peerlings and Meijer [235] modified and expanded the classification by introducing two additional classes (6 and 7), although no concrete examples of such structures are known to date. Thus, all chiral dendrimers can be categorized into seven classes [292]: (1) chirality of the core only, (2) chirality of the branching unit only, (3) chirality of the terminal group only, (4) chirality of two or three building blocks mentioned above, (5) constitutionally different branches attached to a chiral core, (6) a rigid chiral conformation without any stereocenters or chiral units, and (7) interactions with noncovalently attached chiral ligands.

230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240. 241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. 252. 253. 254. 255. 256. 257. 258. 259. 260. 261. 262. 263. 264. 265. 266. 267. 268. 269. 270. 271. S. Nummelin et al. Hult A, Johansson M, Malmström E (1995) Macromol Symp 98:1159 Malmström E, Johansson M, Hult A (1995) Macromolecules 28:1698 Malmström E, Hult A (1995) Polym Mater Sci Eng 73:349 Johansson M, Hult A (1995) J Coat Technol 67:35 Malmström E, Hult A (1996) Macromolecules 29:1222 Malmström E, Johansson M, Hult A (1996) Macromol Chem Phys 197:3199 Johanson M, Malmström E, Hult A (1996) Trends Polym Sci (Cambridge, UK) 4:398 Peerlings HWI, Meijer EW (1997) Chem Eur J 3:1563 Marsh IR, Smith H, Bradley M (1996) Chem Commun 941 Newkome GR, Yao Z-q, Baker GR, Gupta VK (1985) J Org Chem 50:2003 Newkome GR, Baker GR, Saunders MJ, Russo PS, Gupta VK, Yao Z-Q, Miller JE, Bouillion K (1986) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 752 Newkome GR, Baker GR, Arai S, Saunders MJ, Russo PS, Theriot KJ, Moorefield CN, Rogers LE, Miller JE, Lieux TR, Murray MJ, Phillipps B, Pascal L (1990) J Am Chem Soc 112:8458 Newkome GR, Moorefield CN, Baker GR, Behera RK, Escamillia GH, Saunders MJ (1992) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 31:917 Newkome GR, Lin X, Yaxiong C, Escamilla GH (1993) J Org Chem 58:3123 Newkome GR, Yao Z-Q, Baker GR, Gupta VK, Russo PS, Saunders MJ (1986) J Am Chem Soc 108:849 Gutsche CD, Nam KC (1988) J Am Chem Soc 110:373 Gutsche CD, Alam I (1988) Tetrahedron 44:4689 Newkome GR, Nayak A, Behera RK, Moorefield CN, Baker GR (1992) J Org Chem 57:358 Newkome GR, Moorefield CN, Theriot JK (1988) J Org Chem 53:5552 Newkome GR, Behera RK, Moorefield CN, Baker GR (1991) J Org Chem 56:7162 Newkome GR, Lin X, Young JK (1992) Synlett 53 Hawker CJ, Wooley KL, Fréchet JMJ (1993) Polym Prepr (Am Chem Soc Div Polym Chem) 34(1):54 Hawker CJ, Wooley KL, Fréchet JMJ (1993) J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1 1287 Pollack KW, Fréchet JMJ (1996) Polym Mater Sci Eng 75:273 Leon JW, Kawa M, Fréchet JMJ (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:8847 Mekelburger H-B, Rissanen K, Vögtle F (1993) Chem Ber 126:1161 Kadei K, Moors R, Vögtle F (1994) Chem Ber 127:897 Nagasaki T, Kimura O, Ukon M, Arimori S, Hamachi I, Shinkai S (1994) J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1 75 Moszner N, Völkel T, Rheinberger V (1996) Macromol Chem Phys 197:621 Mattei S, Wallimann P, Kenda B, Amrein W, Diederich F (1997) Helv Chim Acta 80:2391 Vögtle F (1993) Cyclophane chemistry.

Biodegradable dendrimers of Seebach et al. [329, 330] S. Nummelin et al. Polyester and Ester Functionalized Dendrimers 47 Fig. 44. Novel ferroelectric dendritic liquid-crystalline polymer (FDLCP) [332] the dimeric HB 229a is not biodegradable. No degradation was observed for benzyl-protected dendrimers with dimeric HB building blocks (a), whereas the acid-terminated compounds were found to be moderately good substrates for this enzyme. All deprotected dendrimers with tetrameric HB building blocks (b), like 229b, were good substrates for the depolymerase exhibiting a rate for the first degradation step about hundred times faster than the degradation of compounds possessing a dimeric HB skeleton.

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