By Victor E Sauoma

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**Example text**

A ﬁlament is heated to a temperature θf by an electric current; heat is convected from the ﬁlament to the surrounding gas and is radiated to the wall which also receives heat by convection of the gas. The wall itself convects heat to the surrounding atmosphere, which is at temperature θa . It is required to formulate the system-governing heat ﬂow equilibrium equations. 1. The state variables are the temperature of the gas, θ1 , and the temperature of the wall θ2 . 2. 54) Note that the ﬁrst equation is Newton’s law of cooling, and the second is the StefanBoltzman law of radiation.

45) DC Network: where the “displacement” u correspond to the current intensity I 1. 46) (3) (4) 6Ru3 = F3 2. 47) 3. 48) (1) F1 4. 49) Nonlinear Elastic Spring Propagation Problems 18 The main characteristic of a propagation dynamic problem is that the response of the system changes with time. In principle, we may apply the same analysis procedure as in steady-state problems, however in this case the state variables and the the equilibrium relations depend on time. We assume the springs to be massless, but the carts have masses mi .

11) 3. Substituting from Eq. 11 into Eq. 4: Rod subjected to Step Load In this case the element interconnectivity requirements are contained in the assumption that the temperature θ be a continuous function of x and no additional compatibility conditions are applicable. 4. 14) and the initial condition is Example 2-3: Wave Equation, (Bathe 1996) The rod shown in Fig. 4 is initially at rest when a load F (t) is suddenly applied at its free end. 15) where E is the Young’s modulus, ρ the mass density, and A the cross sectional area, c corresponds to the velocity of sound in the elastic medium, and u is the state variable.