By A. M. Duff
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59 I. vi. 12 and 13. Lemonnier, op. , p. 189. See inscriptions in columbar£a for examples: C. I. L. vi. 3906-8397· 3 Dig. XXIII. E. 8; ii. If,§ 2; Just. Inst. I. x. Io. • G. i. 19. I Macrob. Satunt. 2. SOCIAI" STATUS OF FREEDMEN INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN CLASSES the family was ingenuous or libertine. ' Much easier was legal recognition when there was only one authority, and when the privileges of patron and father were vested in the same person, as was the case when a slave after being freed redeemed his wife and children from servitude.
Him remember his own status and begged to remmd ~ that, though a freedwoman might be necessary, concubmage would accomplish the desired results without compromising his dignity. In the case of senatorial families the law was more :pressing. It did not gently restrain, it sternly forbade. Up to the time of Marcus Aurelius the marriage once contracted was allowed, though the whole family of the offender lost its senatorial status. 4 But concubinage between the senatorial and libertine classes was always allowed,S and even emperors were not above stooping to concubinage with their freedwomen.
It was this conduct on the part of some who professed Judaism that led to the comprehensive punishment in Tiberius' reign. Cf. J. , r92o, p. 38 ff. z 'Vile damnum,' Tac. Ann. ii. 85. 66 SOCIAL STATUS OF FREEDMEN insolent freedman suffered the extreme penalty before all eyes. Accordingly Laco's 0stensible punishment was exile, though in fact a soldier was sent after him to dispatch him secretly. '' Besides these inequalities, an ambitious freedman found a number of disabilities barring his rise in public life.