Imagining European Unity since 1000 AD by Patrick Pasture

By Patrick Pasture

In 2012, the Nobel Peace Prize Committee conferred its such a lot prestigious award to the ecu. This e-book takes this prize as a place to begin to check the organization of Europe's quest for peace with plans and beliefs approximately ecu cohesion, the oldest of which are traced again way back to the center a long time. however the demand cohesion was once not just stimulated via peace and prosperity. It used to be additionally, and unusually even as much as the Nineteen Fifties, grounded in a craving to take care of Europe's colonial dominance on the earth. ancient research also unearths a deep eager for homogeneity and an abhorrence of variety, rooted within the early historical past of Western Christendom.

This publication doesn't inform the standard tale of a growing to be ecu self-consciousness. as a substitute, it bargains a multifaceted background that takes in account the ambivalences and divergences of the eu mind's eye in an international context.

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The Peace of Utrecht, which concluded the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, was one of the first instances where the ‘balance of power’ theory as such was effectively used to pacify Europe. Its effect was less than had been hoped for, which certainly contributed to the idea that ‘eternal peace’ remained a utopia: Europe did still experience major wars after 1713, although most of the battles were fought overseas and imperial opposition gained importance. 5 While in the seventeenth century international relations were framed in terms of Christendom, the latter concept gradually evaporated as the sovereigns gained control over the churches and international politics secularized.

32 Enlightenment, Revolution, Peace 33 Republicanism and the separation of powers were increasingly seen as means to moderate the ambitions of monarchs – for Kant, republicanism was the most rational form of government, and as the people would never prefer war over peace, the best guarantee to avoid war and generate peace. 4 The main instrument for safeguarding peace in this context was the idea of a balance of power, for which Francesco Guicciardini, David Hume and William Robertson developed the intellectual foundations.

This humble French monk also extended the principle of liberty Peace in Christendom? 67 His roadmap for a universal perpetual peace, as can be found in his Le Nouveau Cynée (1623), nevertheless focused on Europe. Crucé foresaw an extended European Council which would meet in Venice on a regular basis, made up principally of the Pope, the Ottoman sultan, the German emperor, the King of France and so on, with the object of settling conflicts by arbitration. Noninterference and respect for the inviolability of borders were crucial.

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