By Patrick Pasture
This publication doesn't inform the standard tale of a growing to be ecu self-consciousness. as a substitute, it bargains a multifaceted background that takes in account the ambivalences and divergences of the eu mind's eye in an international context.
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Additional resources for Imagining European Unity since 1000 AD
The Peace of Utrecht, which concluded the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, was one of the first instances where the ‘balance of power’ theory as such was effectively used to pacify Europe. Its effect was less than had been hoped for, which certainly contributed to the idea that ‘eternal peace’ remained a utopia: Europe did still experience major wars after 1713, although most of the battles were fought overseas and imperial opposition gained importance. 5 While in the seventeenth century international relations were framed in terms of Christendom, the latter concept gradually evaporated as the sovereigns gained control over the churches and international politics secularized.
32 Enlightenment, Revolution, Peace 33 Republicanism and the separation of powers were increasingly seen as means to moderate the ambitions of monarchs – for Kant, republicanism was the most rational form of government, and as the people would never prefer war over peace, the best guarantee to avoid war and generate peace. 4 The main instrument for safeguarding peace in this context was the idea of a balance of power, for which Francesco Guicciardini, David Hume and William Robertson developed the intellectual foundations.
This humble French monk also extended the principle of liberty Peace in Christendom? 67 His roadmap for a universal perpetual peace, as can be found in his Le Nouveau Cynée (1623), nevertheless focused on Europe. Crucé foresaw an extended European Council which would meet in Venice on a regular basis, made up principally of the Pope, the Ottoman sultan, the German emperor, the King of France and so on, with the object of settling conflicts by arbitration. Noninterference and respect for the inviolability of borders were crucial.