By Rifaat Abdalla
This publication is designed to assist scholars and researchers comprehend the most recent study and improvement tendencies within the area of geospatial info and conversation (GeoICT) applied sciences. as a result, it covers the basics of geospatial details platforms, spatial positioning applied sciences, and networking and cellular communications, with a spotlight on OGC and OGC criteria, net GIS, and location-based companies. specific emphasis is put on introducing GeoICT as an built-in expertise that successfully bridges a variety of information-technology domains.
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Extra resources for Introduction to Geospatial Information and Communication Technology (GeoICT)
That is true despite some restrictions involving the carrier and codes. The GPS system delivers two services: Precise Positioning Services (PPS) according to P-code and Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with the shutdown of Selective Availability (SA) the accuracy is 10 to 15 meters, according to C/A code. The SPC accuracy will be at about few meters. This service is only available for authorized users with cryptographic equipment and keys. S. S. S. Government may use PPS. As of March 2000, all users may use PPS.
For GPS, the military codes are encrypted, whereas the comparable GLONASS 35 codes for the GLONASS system are accessible although the Russian authorities do not propose their use. 8°) for the satellite orbits, implying better satellite availability at higher latitudes. GLONASS, like GPS, is intended for both military and civilian use. For the military user, it is not advisable to transmit signals to locate the position because an opponent may very easily intercept the signals. As an alternative, it is favorable to rely merely on receiving signals while preserving radio silence.
The range from three receiving antennae is needed to determine the location unambiguously. Its accuracy is relatively small, and it is possible to connect and improve the accuracy based on the network. The drawbacks of this system is that it has low accuracy. 38 2 Spatial-Positioning Technology Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) TDOA technology uses relative time measurements rather than the absolute time measurements in the TOA technique. Transmission of an unknown starting time is received at separate receiving antennae at different times.