By Jennifer K. Sesabo
The Tanzanian coastal components are socially, nutritionally, economically and environmentally very important, but they're prone to either over-exploitation and degradation in their habitats. This publication demonstrates the level which quite a few socio-economic dimensions of rural coastal families effect livelihood pathways, creation potency and attitudes in the direction of conservation projects.
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Extra resources for Marine Resource Conservation and Poverty Reduction Strategies in Tanzania (Hamburg Studies on Maritime Affairs)
Some examples include establishment of Mafia Island Marine Park, Menai Bay Conservation Area and Tanga Coastal Zone Conservation and Development Program. The main objectives of these initiatives were to promote sustainable use of coastal resources as well as improving livelihood of coastal households. The initiatives included a top-down state coastal resources management approach, which was in the form of establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) as well as participatory approach popularly known as community-based conservation initiatives (see for example Anderson and Ngazy, 1998; Fransic and Bryceson, 2001).
However, the share of agricultural income to the total income is very small due to low productivity of agricultural crops in the study area. In contrast, the share of fishing income is large for those households who have fishing assets despite their fishing assets being of poor quality23. Fishing activity is more important for the landless households in the sample compared to the land-rich households because about 70 % of their total income comes from fishing (Figure 13). Our results indicate that landless households rely heavily on fishing activity, suggesting the importance of owning or leasing fishing assets and not land in their asset portfolios.
In Mlingotini village, households have access to electricity while in Nyamanzi village households do not have access to these services. However, households in both villages have access to health services through locally established health care centers. , 2001), household income in Mlingotini and Nyamanzi villages stem from multiple sources. No fixed source of income per se seems to prevail, the main source of income vary (1) from one village to another (horizontal variation) according to natural resources endowments, infrastructure etc.