By Ruth Grant BPT MAppSc Grad Dip Adv Man Ther
This reference presents assistance for the evaluate and therapy of cervical and thoracic difficulties. This 3rd version is revised and up-to-date with present details from nationally famous leaders within the box of spinal manipulation.
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Extra info for Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, Third Edition
This results in abnormal separation of the vertebral bodies anteriorly (arrowhead) and impaction of the zygapophyseal joints posteriorly (small arrow). ) forces are exerted on the segment to produce translation. The vertebra is subjected to only an upward thrust. Essentially the vertebra pivots about its center of reaction. In mathematical terms, the value of T is zero, and the IAR equations reduce to the following: X IAR = YIAR = XeR VCR The effects of this abnormal rotation are that anteriorly, the vertebral bodies separate to an abnormal degree and posteriorly, the articular processes of the zygapophyseal joints impact (Figure 2-6).
Weme S: The possibilities of movement in the craniovertebral joints, Acta Orthop Scand 28:165, 1958. 7. Worth DR, Selvik G: Movements of the craniovertebraljoints. In Grieve GP, editor: Modern manualtherapy of the vertebral column, Edinburgh, 1986, Churchill Livingstone. 8. Worth D: Cervical spine kinematics, PhD thesis, Adelaide, Australia, 1985, Flinders University of South Australia. 9. Brocher JEW: Die occipito-cervical-gegend: eine diagnostische pathogenetische studie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1955, Georg Thieme Verlag (cited by van Mameren et al54 ) .
This convention establishes a range within which 96% of the asymptomatic population lies; only 2% of the normal population will fall above these limits, and only 2 % will fall below. Adopting a one-SD range classifiesonly 67% of the normal population within the limits, leaving 33% of normal individuals outside the range. This means that any population of putatively abnormal individuals will be "contaminated" with 33% of the normal population. This reduces the specificity of the test and increases its falsepositive rate.