By Yoon S. Lee
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Additional info for Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology: Force Balance Approach (Wiley 2008)
Also, along with hydrophobic interaction and electric double-layer repulsion, hydration force plays an important role in especially the self-assembly of many biological systems such as membranes, protein folding/unfolding, and enzymes. 5. HYDROPHOBIC EFFECT Hydrophobic effect plays the central role in the understanding of molecular selfassembly phenomena in a wide-length scale. It is mainly an entropic effect, but for those who remember the thermodynamic principle, ∆G = ∆H − T · ∆S, the hydrophobic effect is also affected by enthalpy contribution along with its entropy term.
At distances for the closepacking of the molecules (also at double, triple, and so on of the molecular size of the solvent), the same situation causes a repulsive force between the two surfaces, but with the magnitude usually decreasing monotonically. At distances in between, the molecules are disordered. This produces less molecular density between the surfaces, and hydrodynamic pressure from the other side of the surfaces causes the attractive interaction between the surfaces. This attractive force also diminishes exponentially as the distance between the surfaces increases.
For the cases of surfactant or polymer micelles, the primary building units are the surfactant or polymer molecules. Intermolecular hydrophobic force is now the major component of UA,P(x), and intermolecular steric, hydration (or solvation), and electric double-layer forces are of UR,P(x). 3) for this case is not known. But the semiempirical dimensionless thermodynamic solution of the packing parameter (or g-factor) (Chapter 17 of Israelachvili, 1992) provides an excellent tool for the formation and structural transition of the surfactant and polymer micelles.