By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Committee for the Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative
Nanoscale technology and expertise, also known as "nanoscience" or "nanotechnology," are technological know-how and engineering enabled via our particularly new skill to control and represent subject on the point of unmarried atoms and small teams of atoms. This power is the results of many advancements within the final 20 years of the 20 th century, together with innovations of medical tools just like the scanning tunneling microscope. utilizing such instruments, scientists and engineers have began controlling the constitution and houses of fabrics and platforms on the scale of 10?9 meters, or 1/100,000 the width of a human hair. Scientists and engineers count on that nanoscale paintings will allow the improvement of fabrics and platforms with dramatic new houses suitable to nearly each quarter of the economic climate, similar to medication, telecommunications, and desktops, and to parts of nationwide curiosity reminiscent of place of birth protection. certainly, early items in accordance with nanoscale know-how have already chanced on their method into and into safeguard applications.
In 1996, because the super clinical and financial power of nanoscale technology and know-how was once commencing to be well-known, a federal interagency operating workforce shaped to think about production of a countrywide nanotechnology initiative (NNI). because of this attempt, round $1 billion has been directed towards NNI learn because the commence of FY 2001. on the request of officers within the White apartment nationwide financial Council and organisations which are engaging in NNI, the nationwide learn Council (NRC) agreed to check the NNI. The Committee for the assessment of the nationwide Nanotechnology Initiative was once shaped by way of the NRC and requested to contemplate themes comparable to the present study portfolio of the NNI, the suitability of federal investments, and interagency coordination efforts during this area.
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Extra info for Small Wonders, Endless Frontiers: A Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative
1 Possible Evaluation Scheme for the NNI Evaluation Factor Key Indicators Evaluation Process Quality Technical merit, originality, soundness of approach, innovation Peer review Relevance Impact on mission or significant payoff; keyed to strategic or objective indicators Board of directors, customers Productivity Documented progress or results as cited in publications, citations, patents, recognition awards, invited presentations Peer review Resources Adequacy of personnel and resources, including students, equipment, and supporting facilities Peer review Transition Handoff of concepts to applications domain.
A number of new start-up companies have emerged in this area, and more than a dozen annual conferences have been organized to assist emerging nano players, from companies to investors to entrepreneurs, in assessing and evaluating potential business approaches. Venture investors are sponsoring conferences in nanoscale science and technology, and a number of these firms are infusing nanotech start-ups with needed capital. A limited number of venture firms are targeting nanoscale science and technology and related “small science” subjects such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microfluidics, and nanomaterials as focus areas for their future investment.
International collaboration can be in the best interests of national security. S. political, economic, and military interests by 2015. S. participation in international collaborations can lessen the risk that nanoscale technologies are turned against us. Furthermore, by participating in open international collaborations and sharing research results, the United States will demonstrate that these technologies are not being developed for offensive purposes. Opportunities for International Partnership The exchange of ideas on a person-to-person basis is an important form of international collaborations.