The Handy Weather Answer Book by Kevin Hile

By Kevin Hile

Totally up-to-date with the most recent advances in meteorology in addition to an extra part on weather switch, this accomplished reference addresses all facets of climate in an obtainable question-and-answer layout. all of the uncomplicated components of climate are mentioned, as are every kind of climate phenomena and the technology of forecasting. In addition, the relationships among climate and oceanography, geology, and house technological know-how are expertly coated. incorporated are greater than 1,000 questions and solutions similar to, Has a typhoon ever struck southern California? may well our oceans have originated in area? and what's bioclimatology? This source is a perfect reference for college students, lecturers, and beginner meteorologists.

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French inventor Lucien Vidie (1805–1866) built upon a concept first proposed by German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716) in which a metallic capsule surrounded by a vacuum could be used to measure air pressure. Using very thin pieces of metal, Vidie managed to connect such a capsule to highly sensitive dials displayed behind glass within an encasement. This was highly detailed work on the level of the finest clock craftsmanship. Aneroid barometers were very difficult to make in Vidie’s time, but high-tech instruments are produced today using such devices as electron beams welding copper beryllium alloys.

Everest? Who showed that air pressure decreases as altitude increases? French physicist and mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) was inspired by fellow physicist Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647) to test the idea that the air in the atmosphere is much like seawater in an ocean. Since pressure in an ocean or lake increases as one descends into the depths, Pascal hypothesized that air pressure in a valley would be higher than on top of a mountain. To test the idea, in 1646 he asked his brother-in-law, Florin Perier (1605–1672), to use a barometer (a new invention at the time) and measure the pressure both at the top of the French volcanic peak Puy de Dôme and in the village of Clermont-Ferrand in Auvergne.

The thermosphere (also known as the hetereosphere) is between 55 to 435 miles (85 to 700 kilometers) above Earth’s surface. Temperatures in this layer range to 2,696°F (1,475°C). 5. The ionosphere is a region of the atmosphere that overlaps the others, reaching from 40 to 250 miles (65 to 400 kilometers). In this region, the air becomes ionized (electrified) from the Sun’s ultraviolet rays. It is divided into three subregions: 1) the D Region (40 to 55 miles [65 to 90 kilometers]); 2) the E Region (also called the Kennelly-Heaviside layer) at 56 to 93 miles (90 to 150 kilometers); and 3) the F Region (93 to 248 miles [150 to 400 kilometers]), which is further separated into the F1 layer and the F2 layer (also called the Appleton layer), with the dividing line being at about 150 miles (240 kilometers) above sea level.

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