Ultrasonography of Muscles and Tendons: Examination by Bruno D. Fornage

By Bruno D. Fornage

Sonography is a perfect real-time imaging method for the evaluate of muscular tissues and tendons of the extremities, and this ebook is an invaluable reference for either the means of exam and general ultrasound anatomy. the 1st half considers technical facets of the exam equivalent to sonographic gear, water-path structures, and dynamic maneuvers. the elemental sonographic styles of standard muscle groups, tendons, and different elements of the extremities are then provided. Emphasis has been put on pitfalls and artifacts. the opposite on hand imaging strategies for muscular tissues and tendons also are mentioned. the second one half contains an atlas of ordinary ultrasound scans of shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot, with accompanying explanatory line drawings.

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References 1. Aisen AM, McCune WJ, MacGuire A, et al: Sonographic evaluation of the cartilage ofthe knee. Radiology 1984; 153:781-784. 2. Behan M, Kazam E: The echographic characteris- 44 15. tics of fatty tissues and tumors. Radiology 1978; 129: 143-151. Derks WHJ, De Hooge P, Van Linge B: Ultrasonographic detection of the patellar plica in the knee. J Clin Ultrasound 1986;14:355-360. Dragonat P, Claussen C: Sonographische Meniskusdarstellungen. ROFO 1980;133:185-187. Fornage B: Aspects echographiques des lipomes superficiels.

B) When the transverse scan plane is strictly perpendicular to the tendon axis, the cross section of the tendon is clearly echogenic (arrow). Pitfall in Measuring the Thickness of Certain Tendons also help determine the correct placement of the longitudinal scan plane for obtaining a true midsagittal sonogram of the tendon [1]. This peculiar orientation of the Achilles tendon also affects the measurement of its thickness on lateral radiographic views (Fig. 19). The quadriceps, patellar, and Achilles tendons are flattened anteroposteriorly.

Part I. Traumatic disorders. Radiology 1987; 162: 547-551. 47. Reiser M, Rupp N, Lehner K, Paar 0, Gradinger R, Karpf PM: Demonstration of Achilles tendon on CT. Normal and pathological changes. ROFO 1985; 143: 173-177. 48. Riddlesberger MM Jr: Computed tomography of the musculoskeletal system. Radiol Clin North Am 1981; 19:463-477. 49. Roger B, Chaise F, Girard F, Laval-Jeantet M, Travers V, Delepine G: Aspect du genou normal en Other Imaging Techniques 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. M. avec ante nne de surface.

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