By Simon Henig
Publish Date note: initially released 2000, book variation 2002
The enhance of ladies throughout the political procedure has been essentially the most major advancements of the second one 1/2 the 20 th century. For the 1st time we've seen ladies major Ministers and Presidents in Europe.
Women and Political Power examines the level of development girls have made in ten western ecu international locations, and appears on the elements that have helped, or hindered, their larger involvement within the political method. This publication not just explores interesting contrasts among northern and southern eu nations, it additionally unearths the robust similarities in all international locations. It highlights, specifically, the continued absence of ladies from management positions, and the focus of girls on committees facing social and welfare issues.
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Additional info for Women and Political Power: Europe since 1945 (The Making of the Contemporary World)
It was not until 1979 that a family planning law legalised contraception for married couples, and only in 1985 could single people over the age of 18 buy contraceptives legally. The bans on divorce and on abortion remained in force, and in the early 1980s pro-life groups sought to strengthen the law against abortion by bestowing on the foetus the right to life. In a referendum held on the issue in 1983, two-thirds of those voting supported the change in the law, and only a third voted against. As far as the status of women was concerned, Ireland undoubtedly lagged well behind the other nine countries at the end of the 1970s.
Edith Summerskill, a married doctor practising under her maiden name, unsuccessfully contested a by-election in Bury in 1935 in which, in the face of strong opposition from the churches, she campaigned on the right of women to be allowed to practise birth control. She was elected in West Fulham in 1938 and began to campaign to extend the right of wives to matrimonial property and to ease their ®nancial dependence on their husbands. Having served as a junior minister in the 1945±50 Labour government, she turned her attention in the 1950s to the campaign to secure equal pay for women.
The Act recognised that, because only women experienced pregnancy and childbirth, their situation was different from that of men. Positive discrimination was required to enable them to secure real equality. Thus, strong campaigning and close collaboration between a range of different women's groups and organisations laid the foundations in the 1970s for a dramatic transformation of the Norwegian social and political system over the following 20 years. DENMARK AND THE NETHERLANDS In these two countries, radical feminist groups emerged in the 1970s to challenge existing social and political structures and to campaign for liberation for women.